The Complete. Guide to The Complete Guide to JFugue: Programming Music in Java. TM. First Edition. . Downloading Soundbanks. These downloads were last updated on 18, New examples and demos that go along with released version of The Complete Guide to JFugue. for a link to the Java MIDI bugs fixed in Java . Read more in The Complete Guide to JFugue

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2 } { } Excerpt from The Complete Guide to JFugue Player player = new Player(); The JFugue download page at contains lists of changes between JFugue. Download "Using the JFugue MusicString". Error: Download Document .. This table is properly spaced in the actual Complete Guide to JFugue. 16 Figure . 4. Introduction to JFugue. JFugue is an open-source API for programming music in .. This is a complete program for a Beat Rock Rhythm public static void.

Low values indicate quicker attack or decay; high values indicate a long attack or decay. Either attack or decay may be used independently but if they appear together, the attack must be specified first. For example, the following are value notes with attack and decay velocities set: player. This is much clearer in a picture than in words, so look at Figure In this example, the C5 note is played continuously while the E5 and G5 notes are played in sequence. Measure JFugue MusicStrings were created with the intention of making music creation easy; they were not developed to provide a fully complete syntax for representing sheet music.

Indicating a bar line in a MusicString does not affect the musical output of the MusicString. Nevertheless, it is often useful to indicate the break between measures in a MusicString. To indicate a bar line, use the vertical line or pipe character,, which must be separated from other tokens in the MusicString with spaces.

To indicate a key signature, use the letter K, followed by the root of the key, then maj or min to indicate major or minor scale. For example, KCbmaj will set the key to C-flat major. JFugue will automatically adjust the note values for the notes that are affected by the key signature. If you want the B to remain natural, you must indicate that by using the natural symbol, n, which is placed after the note. In this case, playing the B as a natural note would require the token Bn. The MIDI specification describes different instruments, and more may be supported with additional sound banks.

Most MIDI devices use the same definitions for the first instruments, although the quality of the sound varies by device and by soundbank. To select these instruments in JFugue s MusicString, use the instrument token, which is the I character followed by the instrument number from 0 to For example, to specify a piano, you would enter the MusicString I0. Alternatively, JFugue defines constants that you can use to specify the instrument using the name of the instrument. This tends to be easier to read and remember.

You can define your own constants as well; constants are described in more detail later in this chapter. You ll notice that some instruments contain more than one constant. In these cases, you can use either constant; they will both resolve to the same instrument number.

Recall that the MusicString is not case-sensitive. Each voice contains a melody, often played with a specific instrument. For example, in a jazz song, you may have separate voices for the drums, the saxophone, the bass, and the piano.

Or, in solo piano music, you can use one voice for treble clef, and one for the bass clef. The Voice command is a V, followed by a number from 0 to MIDI editors often allow a song to be played with various channels turned on or off, so you can focus on one part of a song, or hear what a song would sound like without a certain voice. In the tenth channel, each note is assigned to a different percussion instrument. For example, if the tenth channel is given an A5 note A note, 5 th octave , it won t play an A5, but will instead play a bongo drum.

A list of constants representing percussion sounds is shown in Figure You can create chords of percussion instruments, just like you can with regular notes.

Examples include drums, tambourines, woodblocks, and cymbals. Chromatic percussion instruments are percussion instruments that can play notes, such as a steel drum. Non-chromatic percussion instruments can only make one sound, such as a snare drum, triangle, or cow bell.

Layer A layer provides a way to specify separate melodies that are intended to be played in the same voice.

Layers were introduced to overcome a difficulty in programming music for the tenth MIDI channel the one that plays percussion instruments. Specifically, if you had numerous melodies that each had their own rhythm, it would be difficult to combine these as chords in that voice.

Using layers, you can easily combine a melody of, say, hand claps, snare drums, and cow bells. In addition, layers can be used in other voices, too.

They could be leveraged as a way to simulate getting more than 16 simultaneous melodies out of a MIDI system. They can also be used to send multiple events in the same track for example, to change the pitch wheel while a note is playing, to produce a modulation of the playing note. Like the voice token, a layer token is specified by using L, followed by a number from 0 to Tempo Default: beats per minute roughly Allegro The tempo indicates how quickly a song should be played.

It is often one of the first things set in a MusicString, since it applies to all musical events that follow the tempo command.

Tempo represents beats per minute BPM. In older versions of JFugue, tempo represented pulses per quarter PPQ , which indicates how many clock cycles to give a quarter note. The tempo token is a T, followed by an integer, or by one of the tempo constants in brackets, such as T[Adagio]. The pitch wheel can be used to change the frequency of an individual note cents in either the downward or upward direction. The pitch wheel can be used to create Theremin-like effects in your music.

JFugue also uses the Pitch Wheel to make microtonal adjustments for notes, enabling some Eastern styles of music to be played easily. Channel Pressure Many MIDI devices are capable of applying pressure to all of the notes that are playing on a given channel. It applies to the channel indicated by the most recent voice token used in the MusicString.

Don t confuse this token with the use of a plus symbol to connect notes within a harmony in the channel pressure case, the token begins with a plus, so it is parsed differently. Note that this command does not accept note values, so using C5 in this case would not work. The difference between channel pressure and polyphonic pressure is that channel pressure applies equally to all of the notes played within a given channel, whereas polyphonic pressure is applied individually to each note within a channel.

Controller Events The MIDI specification defines about controller events, which are used to specify a wide variety of settings that control the sound of the music. These include foot pedals, left-to-right balance, portamento notes sliding into each other , tremulo, and lots more.

For a complete list, refer to a MIDI specification document. These controllers essentially have 16 bits of data, instead of the typical 8 bits one byte for most of the others.

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There are two ways that you can specify coarse and fine settings. Want to set the volume to , out of a possible ? Integers can be assigned to these, and JFugue will figure out the high and low bytes. Constants When you're programming music, your main task is to make beautiful sounds, not to be inundated with random and meaningless numbers.

To enable you to sit back, relax, and focus on concepts instead of numbers, JFugue has introduced constants that you can use in your MusicStrings, and that get resolved as the music is playing.

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But maybe you'd like to use a shorter name, or maybe you have a more memorable name for this instrument, like simply ELEC. You could then use your shorter name in the MusicString when you want to refer to this particular instrument.

JFugue defines a bunch of constants - around for things like instrument names, percussion instruments, tempo, and controller events. Creating these defintions is the job of the JFugueDefinitions class. Constants are also useful in cases where you have settings that you may want to change some day. Suppose you want to play some music with your favorite 22 instrument, the piano.

When using a constant in the MusicString, always place the word in square brackets. Timing Information When transcribing notes from sheet music, you will find that through a combination of rests and note durations, you can successfully create music that has the proper time delays between notes. However, when reading music from a MIDI file, notes are not guaranteed to follow each other in such a formal way.

For this reason, JFugue uses the Time token to indicate the number of milliseconds into the sequence to play notes and other tokens. You will hardly ever need to use this when creating your own music, but you ll see it if you convert music from MIDI to a MusicString which is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5.

The Time token is an followed by a time in milliseconds.

The time indicates when the following tokens should be played. It is not necessary for the times to be sequential. The full JFugue MusicString is parsed before music is rendered, and timing information that represents any time will be played at the right time during playback. MusicString Style The following guidelines are recommended to help you create MusicStrings that are easy to read and easy to share.

MusicStrings are not case-sensitive, so the use of upper- and lowercase characters can be used to maximize the MusicString s readability. Use a capital letter for notes. Use lowercase characters when specifying chords: maj, min, aug, and so on. Use a lowercase letter for note durations: w, h, q, i, s, t, x, o. However, if you are consistently using durations after chords, it may be more legible to use uppercase letters for note durations. Use the vertical bar character also known as pipe ,, to indicate measures in a MusicString.

Below are a couple of sample MusicStrings that employ some of these guidelines. You have not learned how to construct a song by creating many individual note objects and adding them together, mainly because creating music in such a way would be extremely tedious. It is far easier to craft a MusicString, and let JFugue create the objects behind the scenes. However, there may be cases in which you would want to create music by instantiating individual objects.

Perhaps you want to build a loop that actually generates Note objects.

Or, maybe you want compile-time checking of values that you re passing as instruments, tempos, or percussive notes. As such, notes are used in a variety of circumstances outside of the MusicString.

For example, in Chapter 7 you ll learn about Interval notation, which allows you to specify music in terms of intervals the differences between notes instead of concrete notes themselves; you then pass a root note to the Interval notation class to create specific instances of notes based on the intervals provided.

We ll use the first couple of measures of Antonio Vivaldi s Spring in this demonstration.

Getting Started with JFugue

As always, additional tets cases. March 24, , Version 5. Update to real-time player so each note comes with its voice and instrument information "atoms". Added Intervals. Read about this change on Medium. April 22, , Version 5. Updated some Note methods to respond better if the note is a rest - considering creating new Rest class in the future.

Removed RecombinatorDemo and RearrangerDemo.

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Introduced DefaultNoteSettingsManager. April 14, , Version 5. Updated code for Controller Events with high and low byte settings. New capabilities for TrackTable, including working easily with Rhythms.

Added human-readable strings for some Chords. Make Intervals. January 26, , Version 5. Pattern has add String s, int repetitions again. Moved org.

Spelled "harpsichord" correctly in MidiDictionary.To indicate a numeric duration, use the slash character, followed by a decimal value. A note can also be represented numerically. Updated some Note methods to respond better if the note is a rest - considering creating new Rest class in the future.

Specifically, you will learn about the features of JFugue s MusicString. When you start them up again, they will use the new soundbanks. This chapter explains how to set up and get started with JFugue. In each case, think of the dash as indicating whether the tie follows the duration of a note, whether it continues the duration of a note, or whether the note is in the middle of a tie, in which case the tie both follows and continues the duration. Layers were introduced to overcome a difficulty in programming music for the tenth MIDI channel the one that plays percussion instruments.

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