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MUSHROOM CULTIVATOR by Paul Stamets and Jeff Chilton is easily the best . The three major steps in the growing of mushrooms parallel three phases in. by. Paul Stamets. PDF compression, OCR, web-optimization with CVISION's PdfCompressor for informing you about growing mushrooms, but for transforming you into a myco-warrior, an ac- tive participant manual for all those seeking a happier and healthier way of life. rooms are more forgiving and easier to grow. growing mushrooms. Gratitude is owed to Divine N. Njie, Agro-industries . has discovered a method for processing quality dry mushroom without using a .. ( Pleurotus species) which grow on many substrates and are easy for . (http:// pdf).

Continue boiling for half an hour and then remove the straw and drain it. Next, spread out the straw on a clean surface and let it cool down. Pack two or three inches of straw into the plastic bag and then lightly sprinkle the spawn on top. Keep the growing area at around 78 degrees F. Places the bags on a shelving unit.

Volume II by R. Rush Wayne, Ph.D.

Remember to stop any threats of natural light getting into the room. Cover windows and cracks. Fruiting For your fruiting room, you need a high level of humidity.

The temperature will need to be 65 to 70 degrees F.

2 - Growing Mushrooms the Easy Way Home Mushroom Cultivation with Hydrogen Peroxide.pdf

To shock your mycelium, which will force it into fruiting, move the bags to a cool place for a day, such as a basement or other cool place, and then move them back to the fruiting room. Next, cut away the bag, which allows mushroom growth to take place.

Once you have stable, non-sectoring mycelium, you are ready to make spawn and test your strain in bulk substrate. And don't forget to make storage cultures! Ideas Toward Mycelial Culture without Agar Agar is probably the most expensive ingredient used in mushroom growing.

And although it is relatively simple to handle once you've been introduced to it, many beginning mushroom growers undoubtedly avoid getting their own cultures because of their unfamiliarity with agar.

So I have been thinking about alternatives. Gray cardboard is cheap and reasonably available, and as long as it is clean, it will not contain any peroxide-decomposing enzymes. Unlike corrugated cardboard, gray cardboard wets easily and the wet material is soft enough to remove clumps for transfers. It is also a good substrate for the growth of mushroom mycelium, often supporting rapid growth even when very limited amounts of other nutrients are present.

And it is a simple matter to add a nutrient solution if you need it. So, instead of going through all the trouble of weighing ingredients for agar medium, melting the agar, cooling slowly, adding peroxide, pouring plates, waiting for them to solidify, then drying them for a couple of days, you can just cut disks of gray cardboard to fit your Petri plates or jars, add a measured amount of water to the disks, and prepare a jar of plain water or a simple nutrient solution.

Then, pop the plates and the jar of liquid in the pressure cooker for 10 minutes, cool rapidly, and add peroxide to the jar of liquid. Finally, transfer a measured amount of the solution to the cardboard to give it peroxide protection.

The cardboard plates are then ready to use as soon as the solution has soaked in. Where gray cardboard is in short supply, newsprint is a possible substitute, but it has several drawbacks compared to cardboard.

For one thing, it can be hard to see the mycelium, particularly if the newsprint is light in color. The mycelium can be as wispy as a spider web when it is growing on newsprint anyway, and to complicate matters it may spread more beneath the surface, out of view, than in plain sight.

Moreover, the growth rarely develops in a nice round halo such as one gets on agar, nor does it necessarily progress evenly from one layer of newsprint to the next. Instead, the mycelium can spread somewhat capriciously, apparently influenced by small variations in the conditions it encounters between the layers of the newsprint.

I do not yet know whether mycelium can be repeatedly transferred on plain, unsupplemented cardboard without running into nutrient limitations. I would expect cardboard to be close to devoid of nitrogen, so until further notice, it is probably a good idea to add a nutrient solution to keep your mycelium going on cardboard disks.

How to prepare the plates Here are the detailed steps for making cardboard plates. Note that you can also use small jars in place of Petri dishes. Trace a Petri plate onto the cardboard with a pencil and cut out several disks to fit into your plates. Multiply this weight by a factor of 1. Remember, 1 ounce of water equals Example: Suppose my disks weighed 0.

Multiplying 0. There are That means I'll add 6. Let the solution soak completely into the disks. They are now ready to use.

You can store and incubate these plates inside plastic food storage bags as I suggest in Volume I for agar plates. But you will probably find that your cardboard disks dry out too quickly.

You can keep them moist longer by storing them in a closed container that has some peroxide solution in the bottom.

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For instance, find a plastic yogurt container or a jar with a mouth wide enough to let Petri dishes pass. Then create a platform to hold your Petri dishes off the bottom of the container, perhaps by putting a smaller jar inside the larger container.

Put the Petris on top of the platform.

Then add a small quantity of peroxide solution to the container at the same concentration you use for your plates roughly 0. Finally, cover the container with a layer of plastic wrap and fix it in place with a rubber band around the mouth of the container this kind of closure will allow adequate oxygen diffusion. Be careful to set it up so that you cannot knock your Petri dishes off the platform into the water. Making transfers Now you are probably wondering how you will remove wedges of cardboard when you want to make a transfer from one of these plates.

Just draw the scalpel tip firmly sideways across the cardboard a few times in one place. The scrapings can then be transferred to another plate or to a jar of spawn with the scalpel.

Corrugated cardboard turns out to be too tough for easy removal of material from the surface by scraping in this fashion. Cleaning the mycelium As I explained in Volume I and in the section on slants above, invisible contaminants from the air can build up on the surface of mycelium that has been grown on peroxide plates, since the peroxide protects the medium but not the mycelium.

The invisible contaminants have to be cleaned off periodically, or else they will proliferate in spawn or fruiting cultures. Mycelium grown on cardboard is no exception. With agar cultures, we cleaned the mycelium with the rather awkward measure of prying the agar disk out of the bottom of the Petri plate into the lid, then inoculating the bottom of the agar, then returning the agar disk to its original place.

This forced the mycelium to grow up through the medium, leaving contaminants behind. Although this works, it also increases the failure rate because it is such a tricky maneuver.

With cardboard, it is easy to inoculate the bottom of the disk: you can just flip the plate upside down, so that the disk falls into the lid and the bottom of the disk is exposed. Then transfer a sample of mycelium to the exposed surface with a flame-sterilized scalpel, close up the plate, and flip it back over. But as it turns out, the mycelium takes a surprisingly long time to grow through the disk, preferring instead to spread laterally. So rather than waiting for the mycelium to grow to the top, we can simply allow it to spread on the bottom of the disk.

As long as it is left undisturbed, the mycelium then will grow entirely under the cover of cardboard, so that it has very little exposure to airborne contaminants. This in itself should keep the mycelium clean, especially if the cardboard disk sits nearly flat on the bottom of the plate. If you routinely inoculate your plates this way, and you take material toward the edge of the mycelial halo for your transfers, I expect you should have little problem with accumulation of invisible contaminants.

If you have trouble getting your disks to sit flat on the bottom of your Petri plates, you may have better luck by creating a sandwich of cardboard with two sterile peroxide-moistened disks, inoculating the inside of the sandwich, between the disks.

The mycelium then will grow entirely within the sandwich, keeping it free of airborne contamination. The dry quality of the cardboard surface on both sides of the mycelium, in addition, should discourage the spread of bacteria and yeast, so that the mycelium can clean itself as it spreads laterally within the sandwich.

When you want to get at the protected mycelium inside the sandwich, you pry apart the pieces of cardboard. Because you cannot see how far the mycelium has grown without opening it, you will have to be careful about dating your cultures, so you can be sure you have allowed enough time for the mycelium to grow out before you open the sandwich. Storage cultures without agar Freshly inoculated cardboard "sandwiches" can easily be picked up with a pair of tweezers sterilized in a flame and transferred to small ziplock plastic bags for storage.

After transfer, allow the mycelium to grow out for a week or two. As an alternative, narrow strips of sterilized, moistened cardboard could be inoculated with small chunks of agar culture, then with the help of a flame-sterilized tweezers slipped into sterile screw cap tubes for storage. When it was time to retrieve the culture from storage and grow it out again , a given strip could then be carefully withdrawn and transferred to a sterile Petri dish or a jar, where the mycelium could be more easily scraped from the surface of the cardboard.

Growing Mushrooms the Easy Way

Yet another choice would be to load some moistened sawdust or paper fiber pellets broken into small bits after moistening into screw cap tubes, pressure sterilize for 10 minutes, cool, and inoculate with a bit of agar culture. After the mycelium has grown out, the culture can be put in storage. Then, it should be possible to remove a bit of the culture by means of an inoculating loop or scalpel for transfer to new medium when needed.

I have not yet had enough time to determine how well these cultures hold up in long-term storage, but I suspect they will do better than agar cultures, since paper fiber and cardboard more closely resemble natural substrate for mushroom mycelium. If you don't add any nutrient solution, the medium will be quite lean, as is usually recommended for storage cultures; this both encourages dormancy and prevents an accumulation of toxic waste products that the mycelium would produce in a richer medium in long term storage.

At the same time, species such as oyster mushrooms that do not do well in wet storage that is, distilled water or slants may find the cardboard medium more to their liking, since it has a drier character. In addition, paper fiber and cardboard cultures of cold-tolerant strains like those of oyster mushrooms can easily be frozen.

Sending cultures in the mail Just as paper and cardboard cultures can easily be stored in plastic ziplock baggies, so too can they be sent out in the mail this way. Make a sandwich of mycelium between two thin disks of gray cereal-box cardboard that have been sterilized and moistened with peroxide solution. The colored side of the cardboard faces out, acting to help hold moisture in and keep potential contaminants sealed out.

Then, with a tweezers, pop this sandwich into the smallest ziplock bag you can find, zip it closed, and let it grow out for a few days. Put something heavy on top of the bag like a book, to hold the sandwich tightly closed as the mycelium stitches it together. Instead of a ziplock bag, you can also cut off a corner section of a non-ziplock plastic food storage bag, fold it over neatly, and tape it closed. Finally, send it off.

The recipient at the other end will just need to transfer the mycelium to a fresh plate. To do so, he or she will need to remove the disks to a sterile Petri plate or jar, then pry the sandwich open with a tweezers to get at the mycelium, which has been kept clean and protected inside.

This method of mailing cultures in ordinary envelopes is probably limited to species whose mycelium can tolerate the low temperatures reached in the cargo hold of a jet plane. Warm-growing species such as the almond mushroom Agaricus subrufescens may need to be packed in insulated containers to keep them from freezing. Spawn Preparation Spawn in plastic bags -- "Eight Minute Spawn" In Growing Mushrooms the Easy Way, I presented a procedure for preparing pellet-fuel based spawn quickly and easily using glass jars as containers.

This is still my own preferred method for making spawn, but I have worked out variations on this method so that it can be adapted to additional situations. You can easily use these bags as spawn containers--in fact, they offer certain advantages over jars. The pellets were there to make it possible to break up the spawn by agitating the jars.

With plastic bags, you can break up the spawn by manipulating the bags. For another thing, air exchange into the plastic bags seems to be greater than that into jars, because oxygen can enter through the plastic but not through glass. This speeds up growth of spawn somewhat in the plastic bags.

And, the spawn bags heat and cool more quickly than jars, so the steaming process can be completed even more quickly than before.

The bags also save the trouble of preparing cardboard disks to fit in the jar lids, and of cleaning the jars. And finally, the bags allow you to smell the spawn without opening it, because the fragrance escapes through the plastic. This allows you a way to check for purity of the spawn other than just by looking at it.

Bacterial and mold contamination will introduce a sour or moldy smell, and each mushroom species has a characteristic fragrance. On the other side of the equation, the bags create non-biodegradable waste although they can be washed and re-used. And, they are not especially convenient when you want to remove just a small portion of the spawn at a time with jars, you can remove the lid, shake out some spawn into a waiting container, then replace the lid.

For the latter reason, I still make my spawn masters which I use for inoculating additional spawn in jars. Add the liquid ingredients and allow the water to get absorbed.

Keep mixing until the pellets have broken down into sawdust. Twist the bags loosely closed. Place all of the bags at once into the boiling water, lowering them in by holding the necks of the bags together.

Using the spawn To use your bag spawn, break up the mycelium the day before you will inoculate, manipulating the bag to turn the clump of mycelium into lumps, and the lumps into smaller particles. Take care not to puncture the bag with your fingernails, or with the twist tie. The next day, when you are ready to pour out the spawn from these bags, be aware that the mouths of the bags are not sterile above the twist ties, so you shouldn't use them like pour spouts.

growing mushrooms the easy way (

Instead, 1 pull open the mouth of the bag by grasping from the outside surfaces 2 fold the mouth of the bag back on itself, and 3 push the spawn out while turning the bag inside out.

Preparation of Bulk Substrate Bulk Substrate I: Preparing straw with peroxide -- at room temperature Next we come to a method for using peroxide to prepare straw for use as mushroom substrate. This method should be attractive to both the home grower and the commercial cultivator because the procedure can be carried out entirely at room temperature, with no heating and cooling step, and no caustic solution required.

This makes substrate preparation very convenient and inexpensive, with no need for set-ups to heat large amounts of water or substrate, no problems with over-pasteurization, and no concerns about the speed of cooling.

And in contrast to the hydrated lime soak method presented in Volume I, there is no problematic waste produced by the substrate preparation process, other than the natural "tea" that is normally produced by soaking straw in water. Finally, it should be possible to prepare other similar "drainable" substrates such as bagasse, dried grasses, dried corn leaves, etc. Materials of this kind are readily available in most parts of the world. I have tested the protocol both with the elm oyster H.

More of a question mark is shiitake, only because it is typically grown on straw with a nitrogen supplement, and I haven't used a supplement to grow the elm oyster and the almond mushroom. What about the enzymes?

Here I have to admit that my previous publications all argued that straw could not be usefully pasteurized by treatment with hydrogen peroxide solution. I reasoned that straw contains high levels of peroxide-decomposing enzymes in it as do other similar substrates , and these enzymes would both destroy the peroxide in short order and protect the numerous mold spores in the straw from the peroxide.

Now It turns out that straw nevertheless CAN be pasteurized with hydrogen peroxide.

Anderson Pittia

Yes, the peroxide is indeed destroyed by the enzymes in the straw in a relatively short time. But if we raise the peroxide concentration compared to what I previously employed for pellet fuel preparation , and we tweak the chemistry of the peroxide solution slightly, the peroxide can still have a beneficial effect even in the brief time it survives contact with the straw. And although the peroxide itself does not linger to protect the straw from subsequent contamination, as it does in enzyme-free pellet fuel substrate, the peroxide nevertheless seems to transform the straw into a substrate that is favorable for the growth of mushroom mycelium, one that resists contamination even when the peroxide itself is gone.

The peroxide apparently does this at least partly by way of a chemical reaction with the straw.

The protocol Despite this complicated explanation, the protocol for preparing straw with peroxide is extremely simple. It goes like this: 1 Place your straw in a large soak vessel. For unchopped straw, soak for at least 28 hrs, or until the letéléchargemente takes on the color of a good tea.

Notes on straw preparation keyed to the step numbers : 1 If the soak vessel has a heavy or tight fitting lid, this can help keep the straw submerged in the solution.

Curiously enough, an alternative which has proved almost equally effective in mini-trials is hydrated lime calcium hydroxide, Masons' lime in peroxide. But here you will use far less hydrated lime than called for by the hydrated lime soak detailed in Volume I. Instead of adding so much hydrated lime that you create something close to a saturated solution, which then creates disposal problems when you drain the straw, you will now add just enough hydrated lime to raise the pH a bit while the peroxide reacts with the straw.

The solutions can be prepared with cold water from the tap, but the best bet is to use water that is not far below room temperature. Chopping the straw promotes more efficient absorption of water, and the smaller particle size encourages faster mycelial growth upon inoculation. The wetting of the straw will proceed more quickly in warmer climates, more slowly in colder ones, so adjust your soak times accordingly. Pasteurized gypsum, if added, can be mixed in at this stage as well.

But if you must have a supplement, I would suggest using drainable materials resembling straw, such as alfalfa, which can then be soaked in peroxide solution with the straw. Bulk Substrate II: An "add-and-stir" method for peroxide-compatible substrates This next procedure allows you to prepare wood-based mushroom substrate at room temperature, virtually in a single step.

Unlike the previous method for straw, this procedure does require that you use a starting material devoid of peroxide-decomposing enzymes. You can use wood pellet fuel, or any similar peroxide-compatible wood product such as composite logs, sawdust-based cat litter, kiln dried sawdust, or paper fiber pellets--just be sure the material is otherwise conducive to the growth of the mushroom species you want to cultivate.

As with my earlier methods, the added peroxide will remain in the substrate and protect against airborne contaminants, so there should be no need for air filtration or sterile facilities.

The resulting substrate should allow contaminant-free growth of any wood decomposing mushroom species, given an appropriate choice of additives, wood type, and growing conditions. In the first volume of Growing Mushrooms the Easy Way, I presented a procedure for preparing wood pellet fuel that required adding boiling water to the pellets as the first step. This served both to pasteurize the pellets and to break them down into sawdust rapidly.

Peroxide solution, added only after the pellets had cooled, then served to kill heat resistant spores still present in the substrate and to protect the substrate from airborne contaminants.

This procedure works well for the home cultivator, but because of the two steps of liquid addition combined with the need for heating and cooling, it is rather awkward to scale up for commercial cultivation. The new procedure presented here avoids the awkwardness of the previous procedure by using a peroxide concentration about 10 fold higher than the previous method.Ready to harvest oyster mushroom after only 30 days.

Conclusion Back to Contents As I reach the end of this manuscript. By contrast, if you try to grow a mushroom strain youve isolated from spores or cloning and it doesnt fruit, you wont know whether it is the conditions you are providing, or the strain that is causing the problem.

The precise procedures for inducing mushroom formation differ from one species to another. Use BBM described above if you want to add nutrients to the plates. This mushroom generally needs a casing layer--a layer of friable, soil-like mixture usually containing peat--applied to the surface of the culture in order to form fruiting bodies.

If you start with a quantity of spawn and fresh bulk substrate. While the peroxide killed bacteria.

JERE from Orlando
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